Main Parts of a Bridge – Explained
The superstructure of a bridge is the main structure supporting the span — into which all loads feed, and upon which all other structural members rest. You can also think of it as the minimum structure required to support the span. Aug 16, · Superstructure Superstructure that part of the structure which supports traffic and includes deck, slab and girders. All the parts of the bridge which is mounted on a supporting system can be classified as a Super structure.
Thousands of years ago, pre-humans built the first bridge. It was a simple log or boulder placed over a small suerstructure or ravine. It would have helped keep the feet of nomads dry while traveling from one location to another. Bridges have gotten supegstructure more bdidge since then. Abutment: Abutments are the elements at the ends of a bridge, which provide support for it.
Us absorb many of the forces placed on the bridge and act as retaining walls that prevent the earth under the approach to the bridge from moving. Arch: An arch is a curved structure that spans an open space. Bridges featuring arches were among the earliest large-scale engineering and construction projects. Arch bridges can span vast areas because they transform the forces affecting them into compressive stresses, which eliminates tensile stresses.
As the forces within arch bridges are pushed toward the ground, the arch is forced out at its base, which is referred to as thrust. As the height of an arch increases, its outward thrust increases.
To keep an arch bridge standing, the trust is restrained by its abutments. Beam: A beam is a structural component on a bridge that resists loads applied to its axis. A beam typically responds to forces by bending in reaction to its support points, which are typically the abutments and piers at either end. Beam bridges are typically the simplest and therefore, least strong and flexible over longer distances.
Bent: A bent is a cross-ways structural element used to construct a trestle, a key support element in many bridges. Bridge bearing: A bridge bearing provides a resting surface between the piers of a bridge and its what are the best green leafy vegetables to eat. Its purpose is to camel commercial guess what day it is controlled movement between the two surfaces.
The types of movement supported include thermal expansion and contraction or seismic shaking. Some types of bridge bearings allow back-and-forth motion, while others can accommodate twisting. Cantilever: Cantilevers are structures that project horizontally into space.
They are the key components of cantilever bridges. Smaller cantilevers are simple beams. Larger ones use or made from structural steel or box girders built from pre-stressed concrete. Cantilever bridges can span relatively long distances while still appearing light and open. Counterweight: A counterweight, typically used on lift bridgesdraw bridgesor bascule bridgesis a weight that stabilizes and provides balance for the bridge lift system.
Cutwater: A cutwater is a wedge-shaped component added whag a bridge pier. It is designed to resist water flow and break up ice, which helps reduce the pressure these elements place on a bridge. Cutwaters allow engineers to build more structurally ambitious bridges in extremely cold climates and areas that experience significant tidal flow.
Deck: The deck also known as the roadway or surface of a bridge is how to get a soft contact out of your eye functional area that allows vehicles and pedestrians to cross highways, valleys, and bodies of water.
Utility infrastructure is often hung below the deck. Decks are usually constructed of concrete, steel, wood, or a grating system. The deck can be integrated into the support structure of the bridge, supported by beams or girders, or suspended by the primary structural elements.
In some modern bridges, such as tied arch or cable-stayed bridgesthe deck is the primary structural support element. Elastomeric bridge bearing: This is a bearing type commonly used on modern bridges. It is designed to compress under a vertical load, while os for horizontal rotation and lateral shear movement.
This category of bridge bearing includes neoprene bearing pads and bearings, laminated elastomeric bearings, and seismic isolators. Flood arch: A flood arch is a small, secondary arch bridge that sits next to a main bridge. It provides additional capacity to handle flood water. The area beneath a flood arch is typically dry or handles a limited amount of water.
Flood arches are frequently added after the main bridge has been flooded. Foundation: The foundation or base of a bridge is the element that connects the structure to the earth and transfers loads from it to the ground below.
Girder: A girder is the main horizontal support beam on a bridge. It supports the smaller beams. Girders often have an I-beam cross section made up of two load-bearing flanges separated by a stabilizing web.
However, they may also have a box shape, Z shape, or other form. Girder bridges are the most common types all over the world. At its simplest, the form can be traced back to wht simplest early log bridges. The two most common how to make boy friends types are plate girders and box girders.
Guard rail: A guard rail is a system used on the sides of bridges — and sometimes, the median — to keep people and vehicles from entering unsafe areas or falling off the edge.
Safety, cost-benefit, and repair-related concerns go into deciding which type of guard rail is used on a particular bridge. Hanging systems : Hanging systems are used to attach utility infrastructure to bridges. This can include wiring, piping, or ductwork. Hangers can be purchased off-the-shelf or what is a high sabbath fabricated to meet the needs of specific projects.
Pier: A pier is a raised structure that sits in a body of water to support a bridge. The open structure of a pier allows water to pass through it, preventing pressure from euperstructure up against it. It can be made of wood, concrete, or steel.
A pile is hammered into the soil beneath the bridge until the end of it reaches the hard sub layer of compacted soil or rock below. Piles hammered to this depth leverage the grip and tthe of the soil surrounding it to support part of the load of the bridge deck. Side plate: A side plate is a linear bearing that is used as a part of an expansion joint of a bridge.
One plate is typically fixed, and the other slides over it to accommodate expansion and contraction. This provides the bridge structure with support while accommodating shifts in temperature. Whaat arch: A skew sometimes referred to as an oblique arch is a style of arch where its faces are not perpendicular to the abutments of the bridge. The interior of the arch takes the form of a parallelogram, rather than a rectangle or square. Using a skew arch allows a bridge to cross a span at virtually any angle, rather than just a straight line.
Superstructure: The superstructure is the part of the bridge that absorbs the live load. The abutment, piers, and other support elements are referred to as the substructure.
Bridge Masters takes your privacy seriously and will never sell or share your information. There are three types of arches: fixed arch, two-hinged arch, and three-hinged arch. Arch bridge. Cantilever bridge. Bridge deck.
Box girder bridge. Get Our Free Ebook Success in the bridge industry depends on the quality of your tools.
Apr 19, · Superstructure and Substructure in a Building On a bridge, the portion of the structure that is the span and directly receives the live load is referred to as the superstructure. In contrast, the abutment, pier and other support structures are called the Sub-structure. Substructure and Superstructure of Railway Bridge. Superstructure Guidelines 1 Superstructure Guidelines Selecting the superstructure type depends on several factors: cost, span lengths, depth of structure (relates to road profile, vertical clearance, low member elevation), bridge curvature, and speed of construction. Nov 24, · Superstructure: The superstructure is the part of the bridge that absorbs the live load. (The abutment, piers, and other support elements are referred to as the substructure.).
A bridge can be defined as a structure mainly constructed to support the road, traffic, or other moving loads over a deep valley or obstruction, such as a river, railway, channel, or another road. Bridge parts can be categorized into two, namely:. Bridge substructures are the components of the bridge below the bearing level. Bridge substructure Components include:. Bridge abutment consists of vertical structures designed to retain the earth behind the bridge structure.
The abutments also provide much needed additional support to the live loads and dead loads from the bridge. Bridge Abutment is mostly used for the bridge as well as in the dam at the ends of a bridge span or dam and stands below the superstructure. Most Bridges with a single span have two abutments that give lateral and vertical support. Bridge piers are raised structure that sits in a body of water in order to support a bridge.
Piers provide intermediate support between two bridge spans. The open structure of a pier allows water to pass through it, preventing pressure from building up against it. Bridge piers transmit the bridge load to the foundation. Pier caps headstock are used as a space for girders in order to transfer loads on bearings from the superstructure components on the top. The bridge wing walls are the substructure components extending the bridge abutments to retain the earth in the approach bank.
Wing wall retains soil for roadway, abutment, and approach embankment , which can be at a right angle to the abutment or done at different angles. The wing walls are the additional retaining walls constructed adjacent to the abutments. Bridge superstructure components mean the bridge parts that are above bearings. The main purpose of the bridge superstructure components is to successfully support the live load and the dead load imposed on them and transmit that load to the bridge substructure components.
These superstructure bridge components mainly comprise of the following:. A girder is the main horizontal support beam on a bridge. It is the part of the superstructure which bends along the span that supports the road pavement, thereby preventing it from bending.
Beams support the deck. Beams are mostly used in concrete bridges. Girders often have an I-beam cross-section made up of two load-bearing flanges separated by a stabilizing web. Again, they may also have a box shape, Z shape, or other forms.
A girder and beam have a similar purpose of supporting the roadway and preventing bending. Girder is also one type of beam support. A bearing is between the pier cap and bridge girder and the main purpose of transferring loads from the deck to the substructure. The bearings also stabilize the bridge by allowing vibration or free movement of the top superstructure and reduce effect stress to reach the bridge foundation.
The movement can be linear as well as torsional. A wide variety of bearings have been developed based on several different factors like geometry, types of loadings, and dimensions of the bridge, maintenance criteria, the displacement and deflection, availability of the materials, and financial resources available. Here are some types of bearings used in bridges. Arched and Cable are both used for different purposes. Arched are provided in arch bridge construction, while bridge cables are used for suspension and cable-stayed bridges.
As used in arch bridges, the bridge arches assist in resisting the forces acting on the bridge. The cables in the suspension bridge serve as the tensile element that provides support to the deck and transfer the loads to the supporting towers and anchorages.
The quantity of arches and materials used for construction is very important. A space connecting the bridge pillars and deck beam are called the spandrel. There can be open or closed spandrels depending on the arch design. An arch is a curved structure that spans an open space. Arch bridges can span vast open areas because they transform the forces affecting them into compressive stresses, eliminating tensile stresses. The parapet wall is also important, preventing waste and rubbish from passing below and restricting side views and can act as noise barriers.
The main purpose of the handrails is to serve as the safety component of the bridge. It is a guard rail system used on the sides of bridges to keep people and vehicles from entering unsafe areas or falling off the edge.
A deck is a roadway or the rail surface that gets the direct traffic load and allows vehicles and pedestrians in the bridge. The deck includes walking or travel or paths, expansion components, curbs, sidewalks drainage systems, and approach slabs.
A deck can be made of concrete or metals and is supported by the girders or beams, further supported by the piers or deep foundations with caps. The deck can be integrated into the support structure of the bridge, supported by girders or beams, or suspended by the main structural element s.
In some modern bridges , such a cable-stayed bridges , or tied arch the deck is the primary structural support element. Bridge Cost Estimating There are different types of costs associated with the construction of bridges, and it all depends on several factors, including terrain, geography, complexity, and remoteness of the location.
Common Types of Bridges Apart from these factors, the total cost […]. Flyover and Overbridge Bridges, flyovers, over bridges, overpasses, and underpasses are some of the amazing engineering designs which are made to aid in easy access and safe time for people using them.
They are design majorly for pedestrians, motorists, vehicles, animals, and even trains. Difference […]. A cable-stayed bridge is a structural system with a continuous girder supported by inclined to stay cables from the towers. From the mechanical point of view, the cable-stayed bridge is a continuous girder bridge supported by elastic supports. January 7, HPD Construction.
Posted in Bridges. Contents hide. Related Posts. January 17, January 14, January 8, Select currency. KES Kenyan shilling. Get new password. X Close.