Science in space
Jun 08, · Space is the zone above and around our planet where there is no air to breathe or to scatter light. Space is a vacuum, but it is far from empty. ESA / Science & Exploration / Space Science. Science is the underpinning theme of ESA. It drives innovation and leads to progress and economic development. It inspires future generations of scientists and engineers, and it drives global information exchange and communication. Space science makes us look outwards from our planet, to the stars and beyond.
Wuat following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science:. Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer spacesuch as space medicine and astrobiology.
See astronomical object for a list of how to create an online multiplayer game types of entities which scientists study.
See Earth's location in the universe for an orientation. Astronautics — science and engineering of spacefaring and spaceflighta subset of Aerospace engineering which includes atmospheric flight. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Overview of and topical guide to space science. Astronomy portal Outer space portal Spaceflight portal. Natural science. Earth science Life sciences Physical science Space science.
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Apr 15, · The Space topic features the latest news in astronomy, cosmology, planetary science, exoplanets, astrobiology and more. We will focus more on the outer space, the outer space includes earth and all other planets, stars, galaxies, etc. The outer space also contains low density of particles (largely a plasma of hydrogen and helium) and electromagnetic radiation, neutrinos, dust, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields. Science in space In the decades following the first Sputnik and Explorer satellites, the ability to put their instruments into outer space gave scientists the opportunity to acquire new information about the natural universe, information that in many cases would have been unobtainable any other way.
In the decades following the first Sputnik and Explorer satellites, the ability to put their instruments into outer space gave scientists the opportunity to acquire new information about the natural universe , information that in many cases would have been unobtainable any other way.
Space science added a new dimension to the quest for knowledge, complementing and extending what had been gained from centuries of theoretical speculations and ground-based observations.
In particular, the presence in space of humans as experimenters and, in some cases, as experimental subjects facilitated studies in biomedicine and materials science. Nevertheless, most space science was, and continues to be, performed by robotic spacecraft in Earth orbit, in other locations from which they observe the universe, or on missions to various bodies in the solar system. In general, such missions are far less expensive than those involving humans and can carry sophisticated automated instruments to gather a wide variety of relevant data.
In addition to the United States and the Soviet Union , several other countries achieved the capability of developing and operating scientific spacecraft and thus carrying out their own space science missions.
Furthermore, many other countries became involved in space activities through the participation of their scientists in specific missions. Bilateral or multilateral cooperation between various countries in carrying out space science missions grew to be the usual way of proceeding.
Scientific research in space can be divided into five general areas: 1 solar and space physics, including study of the magnetic and electromagnetic fields in space and the various energetic particles also present, with particular attention to their interactions with Earth, 2 exploration of the planets, moons, asteroids, comets, meteoroids, and dust in the solar system, 3 study of the origin, evolution , and current state of the varied objects in the universe beyond the solar system, 4 research on nonliving and living materials, including humans, in the very low gravity levels of the space environment , and 5 study of Earth from space.
The first scientific discovery made with instruments orbiting in space was the existence of the Van Allen radiation belts , discovered by Explorer 1 in Of particular and ongoing interest has been the interaction of the flux of charged particles emitted by the Sun, called the solar wind , with the magnetosphere.
Early space science investigations showed, for example, that luminous atmospheric displays known as auroras are the result of this interaction, and scientists came to understand that the magnetosphere is an extremely complex phenomenon. The focus of inquiry in space physics was later extended to understanding the characteristics of the Sun , both as an average star and as the primary source of energy for the rest of the solar system, and to exploring space between the Sun and Earth and other planets see interplanetary medium.
The magnetospheres of other planets, particularly Jupiter with its strong magnetic field, also came under study. The concept of space weather was advanced to describe the changing conditions in the Sun-Earth region of the solar system. Variations in space weather can cause geomagnetic storms that interfere with the operation of satellites and even systems on the ground such as power grids. To carry out the investigations required for addressing these scientific questions, the United States, Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan developed a variety of space missions, often in a coordinated fashion.
These were followed by the Solar Maximum Mission satellite launched Solar-terrestrial interactions were the focus of many of the Explorer series of spacecraft —75 and the Orbiting Geophysical Observatory satellites — This program was responsible for the U. Space exploration. Videos Images. Additional Info. Load Previous Page. Science in space In the decades following the first Sputnik and Explorer satellites, the ability to put their instruments into outer space gave scientists the opportunity to acquire new information about the natural universe , information that in many cases would have been unobtainable any other way.
Solar and space physics The first scientific discovery made with instruments orbiting in space was the existence of the Van Allen radiation belts , discovered by Explorer 1 in Earth's full North Polar auroral oval, in an image taken in ultraviolet light by the U.
Polar spacecraft over northern Canada, April 6, In the colour-coded image, which simultaneously shows dayside and nightside auroral activity, the most intense levels of activity are red, and the lowest levels are blue. Polar, launched in February , was designed to further scientists' understanding of how plasma energy contained in the solar wind interacts with Earth's magnetosphere. NASA's Parker Solar Probe spacecraft has traveled closer to the Sun than any other mission in history to investigate its highly charged magnetic field.
A spectacular flare on the Sun, photographed in extreme ultraviolet light on December 19, , by the third astronaut crew aboard the U. Load Next Page.