What is the Large Scale Structure of the Universe?
You look at a Universe Look Like On Very Large Scales, while bugs are viewed at a small scale. From a small scale, the distribution of matter in the “universe” is uneven, but from a large scale, it is uniform. Therefore, whether the universe is uniform or not, the conclusions drawn from different scales will be . May 03, · The large-scale structure of the Universe is made up of filaments and voids. When we look closely at the filaments, we find that they can be broken down into superclusters, clusters, galaxy groups, and finally into galaxies.
Looking up at the night sky, it what are wind chimes good for as though the stars and galaxies are spread out in a more or less random fashion. This, however, isn't really the case. The universe isn't a random jumble of objects; it has a structure composed of galaxies and gas. Cosmologists call this structure the cosmic web. The cosmic web is composed of interconnecting filaments of clustered galaxies and gases stretched out across the universe and separated by giant voids.
The largest of these filaments that we have found to date is the Hercules—Corona Borealis Great Wall, which is a staggering 10 billion light years long and contains several billion galaxies. As for the voids, the largest is the Keenan, Barger, and Cowie KBC void, which has a diameter of 2 billion light years. Altogether, these features give the universe a foamy appearance.
However, once you zoom out far enough, this pattern disappears, and the universe appears to be a homogeneous chunk of galaxies. Astronomers have a delightful name for this sudden homogeneity — the End of Greatness. At smaller scales, however, we can see that the universe does indeed have a rather magnificent structure. This begs the question: How did this structure come to be?
Space itself has fluctuating energy levels. Incredibly small pairs of particles and anti-particles are spontaneously coming into existence and annihilating each other. This "boiling" of space was happening in the early universe as well. Normally, these particle pairs destroy each other, but the rapid expansion of the early universe prevented that from happening. As space expanded, so too did these fluctuations, causing discrepancies in the density of the universe.
Because matter attracts matter through gravity, these discrepancies explain why matter clumped together in some places and not others. But this doesn't fully explain the structure of what is an ambient air temperature sensor cosmic web.
After the inflationary period roughly, 10 seconds after the Big Bangthe universe was full of primordial plasma clumping together due to the aforementioned discrepancies. As this matter what does the universe look like on very large scales together, it created pressure that counteracted gravity, creating ripples akin to a sound wave in the matter of the universe.
Physicists what is the fubar website these ripples baryon acoustic oscillations. Simply put, these ripples are the product of regular matter and dark matter.
Dark matter only interacts with other things through gravity, so the pressure that causes these ripples doesn't affect it — it stays at the center of ripple, not moving.
Regular matter, however, is pushed out. A little underyears after the Big Bang, the universe has cooled enough such that the pressure pushing the matter out is released through a process called photon decoupling.
As a result, the matter is locked into place. Some regular matter finds its way back to the center of the ripple due to the gravitational attraction of the dark matter. The result is a bullseye: Matter in the middle and matter in a ring around the middle. Because of this, physicists know that you're more likely to find a galaxy million light years away from another galaxy than you are to find one or million light years away.
Simply put, galaxies tend to be found at the outer rings of these cosmic bullseyes. Altogether, these processes produced the gigantic web of stuff that compose our universe. Of course, there are many other processes that go into producing the cosmic web, but these fall outside the scope of this article.
For those of you interested in observing what this structure would look like, you're in luck: astronomer Bruno Coutinho and colleagues developed an interactive, 3D visualization of the universe's structure, which you can access here. Some scientists believe the lightning-produced frequencies may be connected to our brain waves, meditation, and hypnosis.
Flashes of lightning that strike around the earth about 50 times every second create low frequency electromagnetic waves that encompass the planet. These waves, dubbed Schumann Resonances, may have an affect on human behavior, think some scientists.
Kept up by the 2, or so thunderstorms that according to NASA batter our planet every moment, the Schumann Resonances can be found in the waves that go up to about 60 miles above in the lower ionosphere part of our atmosphere. They stay up there thanks to electric conductivity in the ionosphere that features charged ions, separated from neutral gas atoms in the area by solar radiation, as explains Interesting Engineering.
This allows the ionosphere to capture electromagnetic waves. The Schumann Resonances encircle the Earth, repeating the beat which has been used to study the planet's electric environment, weather, and seasons. Flowing around our planet, the waves' crests and troughs align in resonance to amplify what does the universe look like on very large scales initial signal. The waves were named after Winfried Otto Schumannin honor of his seminal work on global resonances in mids.
First measured in the early s, the very low-frequency waves with the base at 7. The frequency 7. The resonances fluctuate with variations in the ionosphere, with the intensity of solar radiation playing a major part. At night, for example, that part of the ionosphere becomes thinner.
The world's lighting hotspots in Asia, Africa, and South America, whose storms are seasonal and affected by whether its night or day, also influence the strength of the resonance. These waves have also been studied for their impact on humans. A study found that the frequencies may be related to different kinds of brain waves.
The researchers described " real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6—16 Hz band. The Schumann Resonance of 7. Can our bodies truly be affected by electromagnetic frequencies generated by incessant lighting strikes?
Certainly some what is a vtct qualification the speculation ventures into new age science. Some believe a spike in the resonance can influence people and animals, while a reversal may also be how to stop sugar cravings addiction, where human consciousness can both be impacted by and itself impact the Schumann Resonances.
By this what does roll tide mean for alabama, a sudden source of global stress pictures of what chicken pox look like produces worldwide tension would be able to change the resonances. Some have even blamed the stress caused by the Schumann Resonances that resulted from the ancient Chicxulub impact event, when a huge asteroid struck Mexico, for the demise of the dinosaurs.
While the imaginative effects of the Schumann Resonances are still up for much more scientific study, the fascination with this unique natural phenomenon continues. A study from Carnegie Mellon University tracks the travels of tarantulas since the Cretaceous period. Whenever a movie script calls for the protagonist to be menaced by a spider, central casting typically places a call to a tarantula wrangler. Tarantulasor theraphosidsare hairy and big — they're the largest spiders in the world — and for many people, the ultimate spider nightmare.
Reality is much tamer. Tarantulas are not actually aggressive. They're homebodies, preferring to spend their time in their burrows with their families. Females and their young hardly ever leave home, and males only go out to mate.
Stay away from them, and they'll stay away from you. This makes tarantulas' presence on six out of seven continents something of a mystery. How did such non-adventurous creatures end up in so many places? A new study published in the journal PeerJ from a team of international researchers provides the answer : They walked there as they rafted across the earth atop drifting continental masses.
Credit: Foley, et al. Together, they conducted a wide-ranging analysis of 48 spider transcriptomesa compilation of RNA transcripts inside of cells. The researchers used the what is a mortgage debenture to construct a "family tree. The tarantula family tree was then time-calibrated using fossil data. Tarantula fossils are rare, so the team used software to assist in the calculation using the ages of fossils from other types of spiders.
Combined, the data allowed the how to make window shades to construct a tarantula family tree dating back about million years to the Cretaceous period. Around this time, giant crocodiles were walking — yes walking on legs — in South Korea.
A map of Godwana million years ago. Tarantulas are Americans from a time when the Americas were part of the supercontinent Gondwana and still attached to Australia, Africa, Antarctica, and India.
The researchers tracked tarantulas' migration atop pieces of Gondwana as the landmasses slowly assumed their current positions. The study identifies tarantulas' ancestral ranges.
Licensed under CC BY 4. Researchers discovered that the spiders may have done some dispersing through the areas in which they found themselves.
Their arrival into Asia was, for example, two-pronged. Once the tarantulas were in India, they split into two groups — one group stayed on the ground while the other took to the trees — before that landmass collided with Asia and the spiders moved northward. The two groups arrived in Asia 20 million years apart from each other.
This is a bit of a surprise says Foley, noting that the two Indian variants demonstrate tarantula adaptability at work:. While continental drift certainly played its part in their history, the two Asian colonization events encourage us to reconsider this narrative. The microhabitat differences between those two lineages also suggest that tarantulas are experts at exploiting ecological niches, while simultaneously displaying signs of niche conservation.
On the mountainsides of Nepal and Turkey, bees produce a strange and dangerous concoction: mad honey. It's a rare variety of the natural fluid.
Compared to the several hundred other types of honey produced around the world, mad honey is redder and slightly more bitter tasting, and it comes from the world's largest honey bee, Apis dorsata laboriosa. But what really distinguishes mad honey are its physiological effects. In lower doses, mad honey causes dizziness, lightheadedness, and euphoria. Higher doses what is your gender survey question cause hallucinationsvomiting, loss of consciousness, seizures, and, in rare cases, death.
Here's one account of what it's like to take a moderate dose of mad honey, provided by a VICE producer who traveled to Nepal to join mad honey hunters on a harvesting expedition:.
A deep, icy hot feeling settled in my stomach and lasted for several hours. The honey was delicious, and though a few of the hunters passed out from eating a bit too much, no one suffered from the projectile vomiting or explosive diarrhea I'd been warned about. Here's another account from Will Brendza at The Rooster :. The back of my head started to tingle, like I was getting a scalp massage.
Ancestry.com for tarantulas
Nov 07, · The Millennium Simulation featured in this clip was run in by the Virgo Consortium, an international group of astrophysicists from Germany, the United K. On the largest cosmic scales, the Universe is both homogeneous and isotropic. Homogeneity means that there is no preferred location in the Universe. That is, no matter where you are in the Universe, if you look at the Universe, it will look the same. Isotropy means that . Jun 18, · The Cosmic Web, or: What does the universe look like at a VERY large scale? The Millennium Simulation featured in this clip was run in by .
Using the power of Hubble's Law to measure the distances to large numbers of galaxies, we can investigate the distribution of these objects in the Universe. So far, we have only looked at a few nearby examples: the Local Group and the Virgo Cluster. The Local Group is surrounded by a few other groups that we have discussed, and the Virgo Cluster is only one of a few nearby clusters.
What we find when we study the distribution of galaxies in more detail is that groups and clusters are common throughout the Universe. For example, the Coma Cluster is another galaxy cluster, but it is different from Virgo in that it is a very massive, very dense cluster that contains about 10, galaxies.
However, most of them look similar to the images you have seen so far of Virgo, Coma, and Perseus. Since we now know that the redshift of a galaxy is a measurement of its distance, after we take an image of a part of the sky, we can take spectra of all of the galaxies in that image to determine their distances.
What we have found is that galaxies tend to clump together. Astronomers have invested a lot of effort in doing this not just in deep fields, but in large swaths of sky.
In this way, we have not only mapped out the distances to the clusters themselves, but to the galaxies in front of, behind, and around these clusters. So, what do we find? Well, for example, look at the plot below of the distances to a large number of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.
To interpret the plot above, picture it as a slice of the sky as seen from Earth. So Earth is at the center of the image.
Each point on the plot is a galaxy. The direction to that point indicates its location on the sky, and the distance from the center of the image indicates its distance from Earth.
Another group completed a similar survey of the galaxies in the Universe called the 2dF Redshift Survey. These pie slice diagrams show the distances to all of the galaxies in a narrow strip of sky. The densest groups of points are the locations of clusters like Virgo, Coma, and Perseus. What you should notice is that the distribution of galaxies is not random.
That is, the clusters appear to form clusters of clusters! The structure that you see in the pie slice diagrams is often described as being like soap bubbles. That is, the galaxies lie along the walls of the bubbles, and inside the bubbles are voids where very few galaxies are found.
The voids are not completely empty. For example, the Hubble Deep Field image was taken in the center of a void. The poor groups like the Local Group lie in the voids. So far, we have been considering cosmology mainly from an observational standpoint.
That is, we have been looking at the distribution of galaxies in the Universe and the relationship between their distances and their velocities. However, we can also consider cosmology from a theoretical standpoint. That is, given what we know about the laws of physics, how should the Universe behave? In the early part of the 20th century, scientists like Einstein were using the theory of General Relativity to describe the behavior of the Universe.
Astronomers studying the Universe made a simplifying assumption that is now known as the Cosmological Principle. It states:. Homogeneity means that there is no preferred location in the Universe. That is, no matter where you are in the Universe, if you look at the Universe, it will look the same.
Isotropy means that there is no preferred direction in the Universe. That is, from your current location, no matter which direction you look, the Universe will look the same. Diagrams like the one above of the distribution of galaxies in the Universe seem to imply that the Universe isn't homogeneous and isotropic.
In other words, the galaxies in one direction are not distributed in exactly the same way as the galaxies in another direction. When we study the most distant objects we can find at much larger distances from Earth, the structure appears to smooth out and become more homogeneous on the largest scales. For example, the all-sky map of the locations of objects detected by radio telescopes shown below reveals a much more uniform appearance.
These objects are mostly expected to lie at higher redshifts than the ones in the pie slice diagram above, suggesting that when we consider the largest distance scales, the Universe appears to be homogeneous and isotropic. Thus, we currently find support for the Cosmological Principle in the distribution of galaxies in the Universe.
Skip to main content. Figure Credit: Space Telescope Science Institute. Credit: SDSS.