What are the four types of mass movements

what are the four types of mass movements

Mass movement involves the movement of material such as soil, rock, mud or snow, down a slope under the influence of gravity. In this lesson, we will look at what causes mass movement, the types. Mass movement is the downhill movement of sediment that moves because of gravity. There are four different types of mass movement.

In this section, you will learn the term mass wasting. You will also be exposed to the various types of mass wasting, their causes and their effects. Figure 1. Pieces of rock regularly fall to the base of cliffs to form talus slopes. Rocks that fall how to use adobe dreamweaver cs6 pdf the base of a cliff make a talus slope figure 1. Sometimes as one rock falls, it hits another rock, which hits another rock, and begins a landslide.

Landslides and avalanches are the most dramatic, sudden, and dangerous examples of earth materials moved by gravity. Landslides are sudden falls of rock, whereas avalanches are sudden falls of snow. The two major types of slides are rotational slides and translational slides.

Rotational slide: This is a slide in which the surface of rupture is curved concavely upward and the slide movement is roughly rotational about an axis that is parallel to the ground surface and transverse across the slide figure 2a.

Translational slide: In this type of slide, the landslide mass moves along a roughly planar surface with little rotation or backward tilting figure 2b. A block slide is a translational slide in which the moving mass consists of a single unit or a few closely related units that move downslope as a relatively coherent mass figure 2c.

Figure 2. These schematics illustrate the major types of landslide movement. When large amounts of rock suddenly break loose from a cliff or mountainside, they move quickly and with tremendous force figure 3.

Air trapped under the falling rocks acts as a cushion that keeps the rock from slowing down. Figure 3. Landslides are exceptionally destructive.

Homes may be destroyed as hillsides collapse. Landslides can even bury entire villages. Landslides may create lakes when the rocky material dams a stream. If a landslide flows into a lake or bay, they can trigger a tsunami figure 4.

Figure 4. The landslide into Lituya Bay, Alaska, created a m tsunami that knocked down trees at elevations higher than the Empire State Building light gray.

Landslides often occur on steep slopes in dry or semi-arid climates. The California coastline, with its steep cliffs and years of drought punctuated by seasons of abundant rainfall, is prone to landslides. At-risk communities have developed landslide warning systems. Geological Survey use rain gauges to monitor soil moisture. If soil becomes saturated, the weather service issues a warning. Hillside properties in the San Francisco Bay Area and elsewhere may be prone to damage from landslides.

Geologists are studying the warning signs and progress of local landslides to help reduce risks and give people adequate warnings of these looming threats. You can learn more here. Figure 5. The white areas on green hillsides mark scars from numerous mudflows. Falls are what was the first football game ever movements of masses of geologic materials, such as rocks and boulders, that become detached from steep slopes or cliffs.

Separation occurs along discontinuities such as fractures, joints, and bedding planes, and movement occurs by free-fall, bouncing, and rolling. Falls are strongly influenced by gravity, mechanical weathering, and the presence of interstitial water.

Added water creates natural hazards produced by gravity figure 5. On hillsides with soils rich in clay, little rain, and not much vegetation to hold the soil in place, a time of high precipitation will create a mudflow.

Mudflows follow river channels, washing out bridges, trees, and homes that are in how to delete a table in access 2007 path. A lahar is mudflow that flows down a composite volcano figure 6. Ash what does his text messages mean with snow and ice melted by the eruption to produce hot, fast-moving flows.

The lahar caused by the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Columbia in killed more than 23, people. Less dramatic types of downslope movement move earth materials slowly down a hillside. Slump moves materials as a large block along a curved surface figure 7.

Slumps often happen when a slope is undercut, with no support for the overlying materials, or when too much weight is added to an unstable slope. Figure 7. Slump material moves as a whole unit, leaving behind a crescent shaped scar. Figure 8. Trees with curved trunks are often signs that the hillside is slowly creeping downhill. Creep is the imperceptibly slow, steady, downward movement of slope-forming soil or rock. Movement is caused by shear stress sufficient to produce permanent deformation, but too small to produce shear failure.

There are generally three types of creep:. Curves in tree trunks indicate creep because the base of the tree is moving downslope while the top is trying to grow straight up figure 8. Tilted telephone or power company poles are also signs of creep. Answer the question s below to see how well you understand the topics covered in the previous section.

This short quiz does not count toward your grade in the class, and you can retake it an unlimited number of times. Use this quiz to check your understanding and decide whether to 1 study the previous section further or 2 move on to the next section. Privacy Policy. Skip to main content. Module Mass Movement. Search for:. Types of Mass Movement Identify and describe types of mass movement.

Figure 6. A lahar is a mudflow that forms from volcanic ash and debris. Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Original.

Types of Mass Movement

Types of mass movement Mass movements can be divided into four main classes. These are falls, slides, creeps and flows. The classes are based on how quickly the rock and sediment moves and how much water there is. Although many types of mass movements are included in the general term “landslide,” the more restrictive use of the term refers only to mass movements, where there is a distinct zone of weakness that separates the slide material from more stable underlying material. The two major types of slides are rotational slides and translational slides. Jul 05,  · Identify 4 types of mass movement. 5 July / in AQA GCSE Geography, Coasts, Mass Movement / by Anthony Bennett Rock fall, landslide, mudslide and slumping.

Asked by Wiki User. Under some definitions, there are two other types, which do not involve "flows" of material. They are :. Gravity is the cause of all types of mass movements. Gravity causes all the types of mass movement. Vertical movement, Horizontal movement, Swinging movement and Circular movement.

The more-than-four different types of caves are solution caves, lava caves, sea caves, talus caves, mass-movement fissures, rock-sheltersand glacier caves. There are more than four types of land movement. These movements include landslides, mud flows, avalanches, slump, and earth flow. The different types of mass movements include landslides, mudflows, slump, and creep.

Landslides,mudflows,slump,and Creep. Landslides, mudflows, slump and creep. An avalanche Gravity causes all types of mass movement. Mudflows, landslides, creeps, and slumps can all be causes by gravity. A slump mass movement is faster because a creep mass movement is the slowest kind of mass movement.

Mass movement is the movement in which Earth's surface changes. Gravity causes mass movement to occur. Mass movement can be rapid or slow. Intermediate mass 3. Stellar mass 4. Gravity causes Mass Movement. A mass movement is caused by Gravity. Ask Question. Earth Sciences. Mechanical Engineering. See Answer. Top Answer. Wiki User Answered Mass movement also known as mass wasting can be any of four types of motions : creep objects lean downhill over many years slump rock and soil slip down a hill in one large mass slides landslides : rock and soil slide downhill flows mudslides and mudflows: rock and soil mixed with water slides downhill Under some definitions, there are two other types, which do not involve "flows" of material.

They are : topples rock pivots off a slope falls rock separates and falls without flowing. Related Questions. What force causes all types of mass movement? What causes different types of mass movements? What are the four main types of movement? What are the 4 types of rapid mass movement?

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