What is Cotton Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
The Indian worm-gear roller gin, invented sometime around the 16th century, has, according to Lakwete, remained virtually unchanged up to the present time. A modern mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in and patented in Originally, Whitney and Miller planned to ask for 1/3 the profits, and not sell any machines/gins. In , the profits from the American cotton industry were $10 million. So that would have been about $3 million in This did not happen. Ea.
A cotton gin — meaning "cotton engine" — is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The separated seeds may be used to grow more cotton or to produce cottonseed oil. Handheld roller gins had been used in the Indian subcontinent since at earliest AD and then in other regions. A modern mechanical wat gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in and patented in Whitney's gin used a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose wqs lint to prevent jams.
It revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but also led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton harvesting rapidly increased. The invention has thus been identified as an inadvertent contributing factor to the outbreak of the American Civil War.
A single-roller cotton gin came into use in Wax by the 5th century. An improvement invented in India was the two-roller gin, known as the "churka", "charki", or "wooden-worm-worked roller".
Cotton fibers are produced in the seed pods "bolls" of the cotton plant where the fibers "lint" in the bolls are tightly interwoven with seeds. To make the fibers usable, the seeds and fibers must first be separated, a task which hear been previously performed manually, with production of cotton requiring hours of labor for the separation. Many simple seed-removing devices had been invented, but until the innovation of the cotton gin, most required significant operator attention and worked only on a small scale.
The earliest versions of the cotton gin consisted of a single roller made of iron or wood and a flat piece of stone or wood. The earliest evidence of the cotton gin is found in the fifth century, in the form of Buddhist paintings depicting a single-roller gin in the Ajanta Caves in western India. A narrow single roller was necessary to expel the seeds from the cotton without crushing the seeds. The design was similar to that of a mealing stonewhich was used to grind grain.
The early history of the cotton gin is ambiguous, because archeologists likely mistook the cotton gin's parts for other tools. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in India and China. The Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Un cotton trade by the 16th century. This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power.
The worm gear roller gin, which was invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th to 14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire sometime around the 16th century,  and is still used in the Indian subcontinent through to the present day.
It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, which is half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day. With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce pounds per day.
If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, and a few people's labour what is the endosymbiont hypothesis used to feed them, they could produce as much work incented people cotton gin was invented in what year formerly.
The Indian roller cotton gin, known as the churka or charkhawas introduced to the United States in the midth century, when it was adopted in the southern United States. The device was adopted for cleaning long-staple cottonbut was not suitable for the short-staple cotton that was more common in certain onvented such what can cause low water pressure in house Georgia.
Several modifications were made to the Indian roller gin by Mr. Krebs in and Joseph Eve gibbut their uses remained limited to the long-staple variety, up until Eli Whitney's development of a short-staple cotton gin in Eli Whitney — applied for a patent of his cotton gin on October 28, ; the patent was granted on March 14,but was not validated until Whitney's patent was assigned patent number 72X.
The popular image of Whitney inventing the cotton gin is attributed to an article on the subject written in the early s and later reprinted in in The Library of Southern Literature.
In this article, the author claimed Catharine Littlefield Greene suggested to Whitney the use of a brush-like component instrumental in separating out the seeds and cotton. To date, Greene's role in the invention of the gin has not been verified independently. Whitney's cotton gin model was capable of cleaning 50 pounds 23 kg of lint per day.
The model consisted wax a wooden cylinder surrounded by rows of slender spikes, which pulled the lint through the bars of a comb-like grid. Loose cotton was brushed off, preventing the mechanism from jamming. Many contemporary inventors attempted to develop a design that would process short staple cottonand Hodgen Holmes, Robert Watkins, William Longstreetand John Murray had all been issued patents for improvements to the cotton gin by Although he spent many years in court attempting giin enforce his patent against planters who made unauthorized copies, a change in patent law ultimately made his claim legally enforceable — too late for him to make much money from the device in the single year remaining before the patent expired.
While Whitney's gin facilitated the cleaning of seeds from short-staple cotton, it damaged the fibers of extra-long staple cotton Gossypium barbadense. McCarthy's gin was marketed for use with both short-staple and extra-long staple cotton, but was particularly useful for processing long-staple cotton. After McCarthy's patent expired inMcCarthy type gins were manufactured in Britain and sold around the world.
It cleaned cotton several times faster than the older gins, and, when powered by one horse, produced to pounds of lint a day. Vibration caused by the reciprocating motion limited the speed at which the gin could operate. In the middle of the 20th Century gins using a rotating blade replaced ones using a reciprocating blade. These descendants eyar the McCarthy gin are the only gins now used for extra-long staple cotton in the United States. For a decade and a half after the end of the Civil War ina number of innovative features became widely used for ginning in the United States.
They included steam power instead of animal power, an automatic feeder to assure that the gin stand ran smoothly, a condenser to make the clean cotton coming out of the gin easier to handle, and indoor presses so that cotton no longer had to be carried across the gin yard to be baled. Munger invented additional system ginning techniques. Robert and his wife, Mary Collett, later moved to Mexia, Texasbuilt a system gin, and obtained related patents.
The Munger System Ginning Outfit or system gin integrated all the ginning operation machinery, thus assuring the cotton would flow through the machines smoothly. Such system gins use air to move cotton from machine to machine. However, the selling point for inventee gin owners was the accompanying cost savings while producing cotton both more speedily and of higher quality.
By the s, many other advances had been how to buy heat pump in ginning ws, but the manner in which cotton flowed through the gin machinery continued to be the Munger system. Economic Historian William H. Phillips referred to the development of system ginning as "The Munger How to get beautiful feet and hands at home in cotton ginning.
Aiken has termed the how to connect wireless guitar to ps3 ginning revolution, in which the privately owned plantation gins were replaced by large-scale public ginneries.
This revolution, in turn, led to a major restructuring of the cotton gin industry, as the small, scattered gin factories and shops of the nineteenth century gave way to a dwindling number of large twentieth-century corporations designing and constructing entire ginning operations. One of the few and perhaps only examples of a Munger gin left in existence is on display at Frogmore Plantation un Louisiana. Prior to the introduction of the mechanical cotton gin, cotton had required considerable labor to clean and separate the fibers from the seeds.
Cities such as New Orleans, Louisiana ; Mobile, Alabama ; Charleston, South Carolina ; and Galveston, Texas became major shipping ports, deriving substantial economic benefit from cotton raised throughout the South. Additionally, the greatly expanded supply of cotton created strong demand for textile machinery and improved machine designs that replaced wooden parts with metal.
This led to the invention of many machine tools in the early 19th century. The invention of the cotton gin caused massive growth in the production of cotton in the United States, concentrated mostly in the South. Cotton production expanded frombales in to 2.
As a result, the region became even more dependent on plantations that used enslaved American labor, with plantation agriculture becoming the largest sector of its economy. Infented of its inadvertent effect on American slavery, and on its ensuring that the South's economy developed in the direction of plantation-based agriculture while encouraging the growth of the textile industry elsewhere, such as in the Norththe invention of the cotton gin is frequently cited as one of the indirect causes of the American Civil War.
In modern cotton production, cotton arrives at industrial cotton gins either in trailers, in compressed rectangular " modules " weighing up to 10 metric tons each or in polyethylene wrapped round modules similar to a bale of hay produced during the picking process by the most recent generation of cotton pickers.
Cotton arriving at the gin is sucked in via a pipe, approximately 16 inches 41 cm in diameter, that is swung over the cotton. How to make sugarcraft flowers video pipe is usually manually operated, but is increasingly automated in modern cotton plants. The need for trailers to haul the product to the gin has been drastically reduced since the introduction of modules.
If the cotton is shipped in modules, the module feeder breaks the modules apart using spiked rollers and extracts the largest pieces of foreign material from the cotton. The module feeder's loose cotton is then sucked into the same starting point as the trailer cotton. The ahat then enters a dryer, which removes excess moisture. The cylinder cleaner uses six or seven rotating, spiked cylinders to break up large clumps of cotton. Finer foreign material, such as soil and leaves, passes through rods or screens for removal.
The stick machine uses centrifugal force to remove larger foreign matter, such as sticks and burrs, while the cotton is held by rapidly rotating saw cylinders.
The gin stand uses the teeth of rotating saws to unvented the cotton through a series of "ginning ribs", which pull the fibers from the seeds which are too large to pass through the ribs. The cleaned seed is then removed from the ign via an auger conveyor system. The seed invennted reused for planting or is sent to an oil mill to be further processed into cottonseed oil and cottonseed meal. The lint cleaners again use saws and grid bars, this time to separate immature seeds and any remaining foreign matter from the fibers.
The bale press then compresses the cotton into bales for storage and shipping. Modern gins can process up to 15 tonnes 33, lb of cotton per hour. Modern cotton gins create a substantial amount of cotton gin residue CGR consisting of sticks, leaves, dirt, immature bolls, and cottonseed. Research is currently under way to investigate the use of this waste in producing ethanol.
Due to fluctuations in the chemical composition in processing, there is difficulty in creating a consistent ethanol process, but there is potential to further inventev the what is a good video editor for mac of waste in the cotton production.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Machine that separates cotton from seeds. Main article: Mughal Empire. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to cotton gin was invented in what year sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Economic History of Medieval India, Pearson Education India.
Retrieved March 14, June 5, Retrieved September 9, ISBN Chapter "Machinery and Large-Scale Industry". Das Kapital.
An Economy Built on Slavery
Eli Whitney Jr. (December 8, – January 8, ) was an American inventor, widely known for inventing the cotton gin, one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South. Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States. In the past, this step was done by hand, but in , American entrepreneur Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which is a mechanical device that greatly expedites the cotton separation process. These days, automated forms of the cotton gin exist that make the process even easier for human workers. Many people believed the cotton gin would reduce the need for enslaved people because the machine could supplant human labor. But in reality, the increased processing capacity accelerated demand.
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